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U.S Waning Influence And the Middle East Economies - Alldamoney

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U.S Waning Influence And the Middle East Economies


Middle East countries geographically grouped into the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries of United Arab Emirates Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and the Mashriq which includes Syria, Iraq, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, and the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT)  
The area covers about 4 million km2 approaching 2.5 percent of world’s total land area. The total population as of 2010 is estimated at 134 million that is about 1.94 percent of the world population.
Majority of middle Eastern or West Asian economies are dependent on oil and gas export. Oil and gas exports along with petrochemicals are the main source of revenue within the GCC region which holds about 52.2 per cent of world oil reserves and 24.6 per cent of world gas resources (OAPEC 2009).The Mashriq region most especially Yemen, depends on agriculture as a main economic revenue, that  contributes about  30 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) and employing more than 40 per cent of the workforce (UN ESCWA 2002), extractive industries also exist in countries such as Jordan and Syria (UNDP 2010).
 American’s economic interests in West Asia could be traced to when the prime minister of United Kingdom Winston Churchill, fueled oil instead of coal into new generation of battleships in 1908. With this decision world’s dependence on oil was initiated.
Prior to World War 1 the relationship between the United States and Middle East countries was limited, while there is an evidence of commercial tie through the early 19th century. Britain's overwhelming regional influence made Sultan of Muscat and Oman in 1833 established formal ties with President Andrew Jackson the Sultan saw the U.S. as a potential balance to Britain’s influence. Other notable ties include  the Red Line Agreement signed in 1928 to restrict supply of petroleum and ensure that the major [mostly American] companies could control oil prices on world markets and the Anglo-American Petroleum Agreement signed in 1944 based on negotiations between the United States and Britain over the control of Middle Eastern oil
The U.S. thereby became Middle East principal power broker for decades, providing it with guidance both politically and economically described oil huge importance described it as “a stupendous source of strategic power, and one of the greatest material prizes in world history. The United States was popular throughout the Middle East American missionaries brought modern medicine and set up educational institutions all over the west Asia while also providing the much needed  high-skilled petroleum engineers thereby, establishing connections between the United States and west Asia before the Second World War.


The rise of modern international terrorism in West Asia:

During the Cold War, ensuring a steady supply of oil from West Asian countries and making sure no single power dominated the region was the U.S main policy objective. More recently, the rise of modern international has shifted these objectives to include fighting terrorism. While different theories have emerged in the effort to understand terrorism most notable of them all is the definition of Terrorism, "as a symbolic act", by Karber, “which categorized terrorism as a medium of communication," (1971:9). This conceptualization is explained within the context of terrorism by the four basic components of the communication process that includes transmitter of  the message (terrorist); intended recipient of the message (target of terrorist's message); message (terrorist act involving individual or institutional victims); and feedback (reaction of the recipient). Karber's explanation supports a familiar scenario: terrorists initiate communication when they hijack a passenger airline; the target of their message is likely to be a large and usually removed audience (i.e., the government being protested); and the hijacking itself represent the message (which may involve certain demands); and governmental compliance with terrorist demands represent the feedback required by the terrorists to confirm successful communication. Karber's (1971).

The evolution of modern international terrorism could be directed at the post-colonial Palestinian failed agitation for state formation, and the recognition of Israel that created a series anti-Western movements throughout the Arab world. These groups from Palestinian seen as a model by other militants offered lessons to other ethnic and religious movements thereby creating an extensive transnational extremist network, by 1960 the view that terrorism could be effective in reaching political goals was established therefore encouraging nationalist and revolutionary movements such as Al Fatah and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) to began targeting civilians outside their immediate arena of conflict. Terrorist took advantage of modern communications and transportation systems to internationalize their struggle. Therefore launching series of attacks such as hijackings, kidnappings, bombings, and shootings, most notable in that ea being the death of Israeli athletes during the 1972 Munich Olympic Games, this generated the first phase of modern international terrorism.

 Terrorism on American Influence in the Middle East

United States foreign policy in Middle East takes root as early as the Barbary Wars in the first years of the U.S.'s existence but became much more expansive after World War II. This has been mainly to prevent Soviet Union influence by supporting anti-communist regimes and backing Israel against Soviet-sponsored Arab countries. The U.S. main economic policy since replacing the United Kingdom as the main security patron of the Persian Gulf states in the 1960s and 1970s is centered on working to ensure Western access to Gulf oil.
Islamic terrorism rooted in West Asia took the center stage in U.S foreign policy post Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attack carried out in the U.S, the  four main positive policy tools initially centered on ”private diplomacy and persuasion, public diplomacy, civilian assistance in the form of economic support funds, and military assistance and training shifted to emphasize  on counter-terrorism. The U.S. invasion of Iraq highlights America’s challenges in shaping political

outcomes in west Asian countries the al-Qaeda attacks on New York, Washington, and Pennsylvania graphically brought home the dangers of international terrorism to the United States. To combat this threat, the US embarked on the global War on Terror, reassigning terrorism from a law enforcement issue to a military issue warranting aggressive counterattack. Another significant event that shifted us policy is the Arab Spring and the war in Syria that started in 2012 these events highlights the ability of terrorist to impact policies in the Middle East economies.
During this uprisings, U.S. aid to Arab Spring affected countries fell to mere around $2.2 billion while its commitment during the four years of the Marshall Plan in the post World War II where about $128 billion in today’s dollars.Also the U.S decision to disengage from the middle east by removing American armed forces created a security hole that is being exploited by jihadists.
Finally while the U.S has been reluctant to involve in the conflict after ISIL jihadist over ran part of Syria and Iraq only authorizing the use of air strikes this vacuum has now been filled by Russia, through the deployment of tanks, warplanes and marines to shore up the hole left by the departed American soldiers 

 References
Abu Fadil, M. 1992 Special Feature: The Terrorists Won't Go Away. The Middle East 217(Nov-ember):15-18.
Atkinson, S. E., T. Sandler and J. Tschirhart  1987 Terrorism in a Bargaining Framework. The Journal of Law and Economics 30:1-21.Hutchinson, Revolutionary Terrorism, chap. 3, pp. 40-60.
 Michael Walzer's analysis of the morality of terrorism in Just and Unjust Wars (New York, 1977), pp. 197-206.

Abahussain, A.A., Abdu, A.S., Al-Zubari, W.K., El-Deen, N.A. and Abdul-Raheem, M. (2002).

Desertification in the Arab Region: analysis of current status and trends. Journal of Arid Environments 51, 521–545

Vol. 11, No. 3, November 2000 Asian Reactions to U.S. Missile Defense, by Michael J. Green and Toby F. Dalton

Vol. 8, No. 2, May 1997 Multilateralism: Is There an Asia-Pacific Way? by Amitav Acharya

Vol. 6, No. 4, December 1995 Central Asia’s Foreign Policy and Security Challenges: Implications for the United States, by Rajan Menon

Vol. 6, No. 4, December 1995 Central Asia’s Foreign Policy and Security Challenges: Implications for the United
States, by Rajan Menon

The evolution of Islamic terrorism: an over review john moore 2008
In bush’s word on Iraq US must face up to its funding purpose new York times 13 September 2002

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